National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang (PN-KB) to the characteristics of the geological structure, topography, geomorphology diversity, complexity has created spectacular caves.
National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang (PN-KB) to the characteristics of the geological structure, topography, geomorphology diversity, complexity has created spectacular caves with natural beauty, unique more generally, the biological diversity, many animals and plants, genetic resources rare, endemic and unique to be protected …
The present value of the above the present moment is a reflection mapping and scientific values of the characteristics and important geological processes, excel in the development history of the Earth, from the distant past to the present day. This is also the criteria for World Natural Heritage for PN-KB.
According to the UNESCO Convention, the Heritage will be assessed recognized as world natural heritage may be:
“The natural features include tectonics physics or biology or tectonic activity groups have prominent global value under the terms of the aesthetic or scientific;
The tectonic activity or natural geographic areas delimited exactly constitutes a habitat of plant and animal species are threatened valuable special international scientific aspects or conserve;
The natural sites or natural areas boundaries have been defined specific, global outstanding value in terms of science, conservation or natural beauty. ”
From the content of the Convention UNESCO, World Natural Heritage area is outstanding global values and meet one or more of the following criteria:
Criterion 1: are the facts, evidence of outstanding features to the big stage in the development history of the Earth, including the history of life, the important geological process has been continued a strong influence on the development of geology, topography, geomorphology, geographical or natural; or,
Criterion 2: is the highlight area, fully illustrated, unravel the ecological processes and biological processes going on in the evolution and development of land ecosystems, freshwater, coastal areas and marine fauna and flora; or,
Criterion 3: The territory contains the super natural phenomena or areas of unique natural beauty and aesthetic importance; or,
Criterion 4: The area is a natural habitat makes sense especially important in situ conservation of biological diversity, including habitats containing threatened species of outstanding universal value has review global standpoint or conservation science.
PN-KB has 85.754ha area , located northwest of Quang Binh province, along the border of Vietnam – Laos (50km border) geographical coordinates: 17o20 ‘- 17o48’ north latitude and 105o46 ‘- 106o24’ east longitude. Vertical, which is 70km from the longest to the mountain Mu Gia Pass U Bo from the Northwest – Southeast; horizontally, which is 31km from the West broadest Gad, Xuan Trach (Bo Trach district) to the Vietnam – Laos towards northeast – southwest. PN-KB located on the territory of the nine communes in Minh Hoa 2 (Dan Hoa commune, Hoa Son, Trung Hoa, Thuong Hoa) and Bo Trach district (Xuan Trach and Thuong Trach, Tan Trach and Phuc Trach, Son Trach.
PN-KB though the narrow land, but did survive, grow quite long on the Earth’s crust, with a diversity of geology, topography, geomorphology and unique, endemic … meet standard world natural Heritage feature and important geological processes, global highlights in the history of the earth’s crust evolution (Criterion 1).
Through research on geological structural features, stratigraphy, paleontology, magmatism, topography, geomorphology and other geological processes …, PN-KB and vicinity has a history complex geological development and lasting from late Ordovician (450 million years) to date . Each stage is marked by the geological formations, is the featured products for the corresponding geological (tectonic activity, the movement increased the extrusion, folded orogenic movement and created the basin subsidence sediment and other geological processes …). Here was discovered sedimentary formations 15, 1 magmatic intrusion composition, age, different origins.
The geological processes is the cause of all causes to create diversity and complexity of the characteristics and geological structures, terrain, geomorphology, hydrology networks, especially the diversity and spectacular Karst cave system has a history of about 35 million years (related to the orogenic phase and Cenozoic tectonic faults in the Oligocene – 35 million years), is considered the oldest in Southeast Asia.
Features and important geological processes, outstanding PN-KB global development in the history of the Earth’s crust criteria World Natural Heritage, is expressed as follows:
2. The geological processes important in the big stage of the evolutionary history of the Earth’s crust research areas
The evolutionary history of geological formations and paleontological world, evolution and diversity of topography, geomorphology, peculiarity, endemic and globally outstanding value PN-KB area is always associated with the important geological processes in the development history of the crust.
PN-KB region, according to Tran Van Tri in 1977, of solidarity – Minister Truong Son structure and part of the zone – Minister structure Hoanh Son and been put in motion Hercyni late orogenic tectonic domain of North Vietnam, is the synthetic results of the 5 stages of development in the history crust development areas:
1. Phase 0rdovic late – Silurian (450-410 million years ago);
2. Devon Period (410-355 million years ago);
3. Stage Carbon – Permian (355-250 million years ago);
4. Phase Mesozoic (Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous) (250-65 million years ago);
5. Cenozoic period: Paleogene: 65 to 23.75; Neogen (23.75 to 1.75 million years) and Quaternary (1.75 million year to date).
As you know, in early middle Cambrian, about 520 million years ago, continental crust Mid-Central territory began broken, subsidence extending to Ordovician, creating basins, in which sedimentary formations terrigenous – 1.550m thick carbonate formations of A Vuong. Currently sedimentary formations have been metamorphosed into marble, dolomite, mica schist and quartzite. Metamorphic sedimentary outcrop areas are located outside the study area. (Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam …). Late Ordovician this area is raised.
– In the late Ordovician period – Silurian: the PN-earth bark broken KB, beginners subsidence mechanism be created “flysh andesite volcanic arc basin Long Foundation” (Tran Van Tri, 1995). Bon online form bending, stretching from the Northwest – Southeast, which is developed according to the following four periods:
First period: the period starting with Long Dai formation (O3-S1 1d) with terrigenous sediments, subsidence began forming conglomerate, sandstone shoreline minister, minister of lightning bituminous deep oxidation environment – de-interlacing. The original stone has metamorphosed in the later stages and became quartz sericite schists, quartzite sandstone and shale and bituminous alternating structure flysh format.
Second period: sedimentary basin subsidence continued interspersed with island-style lifting unit form “Cordilliere” create sediment composition flysh format.
Third period: sedimentary basin lithological composition and paleontological formations similar to the second period, but the seeds fell over, basin tends to further subsidence.
Wednesday Period: corresponding period Dai Giang formation formation (S2-D1dg). Sedimentary basin tends to lift up, characterized by the generals sand powder and quartz sand monomineral coastal shallow sea and wave activity.
The sedimentary Ordovician – Silurian and Silurian – Lower Devonian exposed mainly in Southeast areas (which are part and partial Quang Ninh, Bo Trach district) and a narrow band in the Northwest (Minh Hoa districts) outside the target area lamb. Looking at the map geological structures may be deduced about a sedimentary basin Ordovician – Silurian – Devonian land-line form unified highway connecting the two areas mentioned above run from the Northwest – Southeast.
– During Devon: crust subsidence was second, expanded sea.
Devon phase was the period ended development of Ordovician basin type – Silurian. Crust PN-KB region began to develop a new type of basin, a “continental rift.” Axis of bow shaped basin runs from the Northwest – Southeast, located slightly off-range research in the northeast not far. Compared to Ordovician sedimentary basin – Silurian, Devonian basin is extended horizontally and becomes shallower.
In this stage of formation Formation: Fences (D1 rc), faculty (D1-D2e bg) Section all (D2g mb), Dong Tho (D2g-D3fr dt) and Cat Dang (D3 cđ). The sedimentary evolution of the composition from the sandstone, bumper link to argilit, alternating limestone.
– Phase Carboniferous – Permian:
Creating Carbon-old limestone blocks – Permian. Earth’s crust in the PN-KB broken a third time, to form shallow basins, isometric form.
Early on Carbon: crust PN-KB sector tends raising is essential, intrusive activity granite formation Dong Hoi early Carboniferous age; later, the crust in the PN-KB broken a third time, to form shallow basins Carboniferous – Permian isometric shape typical continental style cabinet shelf west of Dong Hoi and the types of online formats remnant basins Northwest – Southeast; the occurrence of erosion domain age before Carbon broad distribution in the East, Southeast and Northeast basins Carboniferous – Permian PN-KB.
In late Permian period, marking an extrusion process lifting motion, chemical continent, creating blocks of limestone desert-style by three fault systems.
– Phase orogenic Mezozoi (Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous):
During the Triassic period – Jura, PN-KB entire regime turned into continental orogenic elevated foundation blocks. In the early Triassic, tropical CTS is raised and subsidence zone is Hoanh Son, northern study area, from river to river Gianh Both the hammock collapsed creating a sedimentary basin – type acid rift erupted along the edge, and Gianh river again (this barrier faults) to Hai Van Pass become a domain providing material for the surrounding sea. Visit Middle Triassic, fault activity and this barrier occurs process terrigenous sedimentation and acid tuff eruptions interspersed them with a total thickness of 3,000 meters. Late Late Triassic, the study area is raised, the fault activity, movement strong foundation blocks that make up the shallow valley basin.
In the Cretaceous period, the trend in the movement lifting the block orogenic style appeared before many mountain basins, continental fringe and inner isometric shape, oval, semi-connected with the ocean in the east and the west Laos, the valley basin was filled by terrigenous sediments Molat style multi-mineral, gray patchy due weathered red gold.
– At the Cenozoic:
Cenozoic stage is stage intense tectonic activity as a turning point in the history of the South China Sea, continental orogenic and sedimentary basins between mountains, before the mountains, along the edge and on the continental shelf of Vietnam. The Cenozoic part of nature, but essentially inherited expanded bottle fascinated by ancient geological maps on a new mechanism to create topographical picture – existing landforms.
In the early Cenozoic PN-KB region is raised, active faults, blocks of intense movement has created a unique tectonic context:
The new fault system began to take shape with the old system fault reactivation has divided the plan into the plan of the old architecture and architectural Cenozoic continue transformation to this day.
Continental crust is destroyed to create the kind of rift sedimentary basin of Dong Hoi internal resources, is filled by a sedimentary complex Neogene and Quaternary cycle structure. Besides increased orogenic zone also occur in cycles. It’s two in the opposite direction of movement as a crucial principle for isostatic balance of the Earth’s crust.
Continental crust is destroyed internal Rift continental style, the alluvial sedimentary graben forms, to be filled by terrigenous formations between the mountains and mountain cycle structure.
Improving fringe areas has created the terraces of different elevations: 200m, 150m, 100m, reflecting the tectonic phases occur simultaneously between the lift and subsidence areas.
The entire morphological structure of existing terrain with ‘limestone desert’ zones grandeur PN-KB is also the youngest age from Paleogene to Neogene (65 to 23.75 million in the year).
Karst peaks tower blocks north edge of karst, Phong Nha – Ke Bang
3. Structure folded and tectonic faults destruction as factors increasing diversity, outstanding global phenomenon and characteristics Karst topography, geomorphology study area.
– PN-KB region is characterized by diverse geological structure and complexity, has 5 anticlinal and synclinal basic 5: Dong Hoi dome anticline: length 10 – 20 km, width 5 – 8km. Human anticline is Long Dai formation. Anticlinal axis shaped bow, her back to the southwest; Anticline Great Enough: long bow form 20 – 25 km wide by 6 -7km. Human anticline of Devonian age (D1); East Ward anticline: 20 – 25 km wide, 2 – 4 km. Devon workers aged between anticline (D2e), North West axis – Southeast; Trading anticline High: 15 – 20 km wide by 2 – 3 km. Human anticline of Devonian age (D1), the axis is Northwest – Southeast; Si Thuong anticline; Synclinal graben form this barrier (situated outside the heritage); Syncline of Dat: 20 – 25 km wide by 3 – 4 km 2 anticline located between Shanghai and Cao Si Trading; Syncline decent run from the 20 on Long Falls; Long Falls syncline – Marai: 15 – 20km in width 5 – 6km. Human limestone syncline C-P and syncline Trung Thuan (outside the Heritage).
– Regional fault system consists of two main directions and two side direction: Two main direction is northwest – southeast and northeast – southwest ancient age before Ordovician – Silurian, reactivated in Cenozoic. Northeast – southwest appearing mainly in Cenozoic role Karst decision process and creating cave systems, Phong Nha – Ke Bang; Two side direction is oriented parallel and meridian.
– Contains complex geological structure, lithological composition and diverse distribution law. There are all kinds of stone: sandstone, quartzite dykes form sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, silica, limestone, marl stone, granite, granodiorite, diorite, aplite, pegmatite …
– Sediment constitutes PN-KB massif mainly limestone age from Devonian to Permian very ancient and diverse, material composition, color and different textures:
Devonian limestone blocks, light gray, alternating layers of clay, limestone, lime gray silicon (in the area of Phong Nha cave, cave evening …).
Carbon Limestone age – nearly all area Permian limestone blocks, with components accounted for over 95% CaCO3, massive structure (massive), seamless distribution is formed in the tectonic stabilization phase.
Xen in and surrounded with many different natural formations continent, with the geological stratigraphic units mainly including Long Dai (O3-S1 LD), Hoa Son series (D1-D2e hs) including 2 Formation Showers Chan (D1 rc) and faculty (D1-D2e bg), formation Section Beach (D2g mb), Dong Tho formation (D2g-D3fr tel), Cat Dang formation (D3 cđ), Phong Nha formation ( D3-C1 pn), formation Bac Son (CP bs), Between the slot formations (P2 kg), Mu Gia formation (K mg), Dong Hoi formation (N13-N21 đh) and Quaternary formations.
– PN-KB is a significant ancient Karst and most valuable in Southeast Asia and around the world with its own characteristics compared to the rest of the world heritage such as:
PN-KB region has a history of developing lasting crust, from the Late Ordovician (450 million years ago) to the present, undergoing five major tectonic cycle: Ordovician – Late Silurian (O3-S1); Devon mid – late Devonian (D2-D3); Carbon – Permian (C-P); Mezozoi (T, J, K) and Cenozoic (E, N, Q); influenced by orogenic belts Alpi – a young mountain belts grow strongly in the Cenozoic; affected by humid tropical climate, so here limestone blocks strongly deformed because of faults, cracks and Karst merchandise.
In terms of area, the limestone block PN-KB has the largest area in Vietnam. Including the limestone area in Hin Namno Laos, the region can be considered the largest karst planet size. Limestone has massive structure and distribution of over 1,000 meters thick.
In the Cenozoic era, PN-KB region was embroiled in motion tectonic front associated orogenic Alpi and neck Karst caves, tropical style typical upgrade cycle respectively 7 7 neotectonic caves and high level Typical leveled surface, as follows:
Level 1,600 – 1,400m: application generation Karst caves first Oligocene age (35-23 million years);
Career 1000 – 800m (in the west) and 700 – 600m (in the East): aged Miocene (23-5 million years);
Level 600 – 400m and 300 – 200m: to the Pliocene (5 to 1.75 million years);
Level 100 – 80m: Gian tape with Gunz – Mindel late Q1 early Pleitocen l (QI), over 800,000 years ago;
Level 80 – 60m: Gian tape to the Mindel – Riss in between late Pleitocen
(QII-III), over 300,000 years ago;
Level 40 – 25m and 25 – 15m: Gian tape to the Riss – Wurm in late Pleitocen (QIII2), over 70,000 years ago;
Level 15 – 16m: Sea advances to the Early-Middle Holocene Flandrian on Q21-2 (QIV1-2), booked about 18000-4000 years.
(The topographic levels from 100 meters or less in Vietnam in general and the Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park in particular is close to Quaternary age and the age of 1.75 million years ago).
Unlike temperate Karst in European countries such as Pirin National Park (in Bulgarian), Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia), Skocjan Caves (Slovenia), Daler National Park – Yorkshire (England), caves and Carlsbad Mammothe cave National Park (USA) …, PN-KB is a typical humid tropical Karst. Mechanical erosion and chemical CaCO3 driftwood washed by floods tropical river rises in the cave is extremely powerful, breakthrough valley by river systems and very narrow underground river, the water collection tank adjacent single watershed Vietnam – Laos to pour into Gianh river. The waterline corrode deeper into the cave ceiling and walls, sandy beaches terrigenous component style hotel “Threshold” and “alluvial” underground river and “Reporters animal hat” branch of the cave is a characteristic feature of thermal Karst tropical PN-KB.
Compared with other tropical Karst regions in Southeast Asia such as Gunung Mulu National Park (Malaysia), Lorents National Park (Indonesia), Karst areas in Southeast Asia with young, developing primarily in the Quaternary based children aged limestone Oligocene (35 million years). Meanwhile, PN-KB limestone very old age (Paleozoic), from the Devonian (410 million years) to the Permian (250 million years).
PN-KB region has crisscrossed fault system on the limestone has created conditions for the water easily penetrates the stone increases the solubility. So cave system in the PN-KB is characteristic of Karst caves humid tropical regions. Majestic cave system of PN-KB is generated by the process of tectonic fractures, then the process of physical weathering and chemical eats, dissolved, washed away over millions of years. In humid tropical conditions, the process of very strong Karst intensity and speed of destruction. Findings speed chemical Karst (Karst denudation) here over 55mm / 1000 .
Cave system in limestone blocks PN-KB is classified into two types: dry cave was decommissioned and active wet cave. The operating-system hang hang hang River and is located in the lowest levels associated with groundwater levels (base level intrusion) modern sector.
The dry cave decommissioned include: The cave related to the current stock level of underground water has escaped the impact of the modern water table (by raising new tectonic movement). In this cave has many beautiful stalactites hang Tien (high roof), Phong Nha cave, dry cave … This type is mainly distributed in the high level. In some shops in this kind of high level detected traces (such as bone, animal teeth, shells, pieces of pottery, …) shows that ancient people had been living in a cave; Karst caves and ancient foothills is the horizontal cave formed when limestone blocks feet under water. At the PN-KB, in this cave is almost no stalactites. The cave entrance level seen in the second cave typically Baseball …
Thus it can be said, limestone block PN-KB is one of the largest Karst blocks have not yet been isolated and in Southeast Asia. The cave is located at the level of different heights, as well as multi-phase structure of the show caves limestone block PN-KB has geomorphological evolutionary history is very long and gone through many cycles of metamorphosis. PN-KB region has a complex geologic history and long from the Cambrian to the present day. Experiencing these magnificent and important tectonic phase fault movement, blocks and folding platform has continuously generated by rolling mountains advanced motion and the motion sedimentary basin subsidence. That is the context is created to act as the cause of all causes to create geological diversity, diversity of geology – geomorphology, hydrology and network diversity, interesting, Cave tourism for limestone formations PN-KB development from Devon to Carbon – Permian.
4. Evolution topography, geomorphology of the area PN-KB
After the accumulation of red sediment formations in Kreta Mu Gia, the PN-KB is lifted and the process of modification external terrain. Calculate the “breathing” of the modern tectonic movements associated with cyclical fluctuations of world oceans led to the formation of diverse levels Karst topography and caves.
Activity powerful terrain leveled whole territory in Oligocene led to the surface formed Peneplen Great, now also preserved remnant on the pinnacle format of 1,200 – 1,600m.
The neotectonic movement of retail areas is occurring in the late Paleogene – early Miocene led to strong cleavage Paneplen surface. Opening stages for process development Karst strong and widespread that even conserved today is probably the Middle Miocene – late, when denudation process, loading and leveling the terrain has come a considerable volume of Cretaceous age formations and coating formations reveal carbonate formations which are the red cover. Activities powerful tectonic uplift interspersed with periods of relative quiet in the Pliocene has contributed to forming the flattened surface, this is a relic of the peak 400 – 600m and 200 – 300m at the edge of the rocks with.
In stage IV, the transgressive cycle, marine degradation occurs in late Early Pleistocene, middle Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene between, combined with tectonic activity has created new levels of caves beneath the low group distributed on different heights. Notably, at the eastern edge of the PN-KB block of limestone, Karst chemical processes occurring during the late Pleistocene marine degradation between, has created a plain surface along the edge Karst quite wide, but part of the area this surface was coated with a mixture of sediment in river – of the late Pleistocene transgression.
PN-KB area is a limestone Karst mountains occupy most of the area, non Karst occupies a small area in the adjacent range, with an average altitude of about 600 – 700m. The internal geological processes – exogenous complex has been going on from the Triassic to the present, is the cause of creating a variety of terrain and landforms, can be classified into 3 main types of terrain:
– Topography Karst: Karst topography characteristic of ancient tropical Karst is formed mostly of Cenozoic 2/3 area of Heritage, including continuous limestone from the mountains Phu Toc Vu, Mu Gia Pass (Minh Hoa district) for up to Top En, Rao Buddha, Ca Roong (Bo Trach district), approximately 70 km long. This is a continuous limestone Vietnam’s largest. The range of limestone spread to Laos, an area of nearly 200,000. If the entire continuous limestone blocks toward both Vietnam and Laos, this is one of the large limestone massif on the planet (Pierre G., 1966). Here, the limestone mountains almost continuous development, relatively homogeneous composition, thickness over 1,000m.
Karst terrain strongly fragmented, with steep cliffs, layered, jagged peaks, often accompanied by the Karst and condensed by dissolving calcium carbonate formation of stalactites, stalagmites, mushrooms rocks, bell rock, stone columns diversity, complexity, magic beauty of the caves. Many places worn stone creates sun gate, stone forests, stone bridges, stone very exotic wells. Between the cliffs are often long and contained a small valley, is about 20 – 100 m (operating result of erosion of the surface flow formed in the tropical rainy season). In karst areas almost no surface rivers, but only in the outer ring. The eyes in the valley scattered smoke put drained on the underground river.
Karst region also contains many mysteries, many who had never set foot footprints. Especially it is located in the watershed region between two rivers: the Xe Bang Hien and Xe Bang Phai flows into the Mekong River system and Son, Gianh river, the river flows into the East Sea Dai Giang.
– Non Karst topography: the proportion of low, distributed in the outer limestone areas in the North, Northeast and Southeast PN-KB. Fluctuations altitude ranges from 500 – 1,000 m. Relatively high fragmentation and considerable slope, an average of 25 – 30 °. There are many narrow valley running along the stream as slot Am, Cha Lo slots, slot Chua and in extreme southwestern untouched valley along the Rao Thuong. Karst topography generally not much higher fees compared with Karst topography, but concentrated water basin provides process development and continuous Karst favorable.
Non Karst terrain is also the watershed of rivers and streams flowing into the river Gianh. Overall this topography comfortable and softer limestone areas. Not as high fragmentation Karst topography.
– Topography in transition: the complex alternation between limestone and terrigenous rocky terrain. We distributed scattered, often concentrated in the transition zone between the limestone and terrigenous rocks. Topography is generally below 800m peaks, though not as rugged Karst terrain but also very diverse and complicated.
Also, in the PN-KB has biodiversity, many animal and plant genetic resources of rare, endemic, special need of protection, conservation … There are many types of vegetation abundance and diversity on limestone – this is the typical form of vegetation layers limestone and hardly seen in other countries in the region.
– The important geological processes, diversity, complexity and unique characteristics and geological structure, topography, geomorphology … is a prerequisite dominate the others uniqueness, that biological diversity, the beautiful and mysterious landscapes, unspoiled forests as natural museum mysterious … it is a prerequisite for forming a spectacular cave system , with natural beauty, extraordinary unique and valuable global …
– PN-KB area has a history of developing lasting crust, from the Late Ordovician (450 million years ago) to the present, undergoing five major tectonic cycle: Late Ordovician – Early Silurian (O3-S1); Devon mid – late Devonian (D2-D3); Carbon – Permian (C-P); Mezozoi (T, J, K) and Cenozoic (E, N, Q); influenced by orogenic belts Alpi – a young mountain belts grow strongly in the Cenozoic; affected by humid tropical climate.
– Limestone block PN-KB is continuous limestone blocks, generally have not been strongly dissected, with the largest area in Vietnam. If the entire continuous limestone blocks toward both Vietnam and Laos, this is one of the large limestone massif on the planet (Pierre G., 1966).
– PN-KB Limestone age old Devon – Carbon – Permian (410-250 million years ago), and layered massive structure over 1,000m thick.
– Cave systems in the PN-KB is characteristic of Karst caves humid tropical regions, with 7 high level cave and surface leveling corresponding typical 7 tectonic cycle [Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Q1 l early Pleistocene (QI), between late Pleistocene Q12-31 (QII-III), late Pleistocene Q132 (QIII2) and early Holocene – between Q21-2 (QIV1-2)] and aged at least 35 million years.
With outstanding scientific value globally, at the 27th session of UNESCO took place in France in July 2003, the World Heritage Council has recognized the Phong Nha – Ke Bang is Di nature Is the world according to the criteria of the earth’s history and geological features.
The results of scientific research on the PN-KB above is not all, it is only a part was discovered, many mysteries yet to be discovered, not in-depth study is still potential to be research continues to add more and more complete scientific data warehouses on a world natural Heritage.
TS. Nguyen Duc Ly
Director of the Department of Science and Technology