Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park is an area containing many significant values and global region, attracting the attention of the international community. Since the
Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park is an area containing many significant values and global region, attracting the attention of the international community. Right from the early years of the twentieth century, many scientists like Parton, Antoine, M. Bouffier, R. Caderre, Finot, Golonbew, Missing Son Hoang, Nguyen Kinh Chi, Le Ba Thao, … has won a lot of time organizing survey, describe and introduce Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park with the world community.
Bang goes a long time by the obstacles of war, Phong Nha – Ke Bang to revive the interest in the study of international organizations such as Conservation Fund Wildlife (WWF), the Association conservation of nature (IUCN), the research group of caves caves Royal Society, the University of Toulouse, technical University of Nottingham, the Geological Society of Australia, University of Sydney … with names such researchers Dehavenig L., H. Limbert, Elery H., Hans F.
Especially, since the 90s of the twentieth century, the attention of the Party, the Government, ministries and agencies, the provinces of Quang Binh was determined to build projects the Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park and up the lake submission to UNESCO natural heritage world, namely:
Dated 05.20.1997, the provincial People’s Committee issued Decision 540 / QD-UB on the establishment of the Project Steering Committee established conservation and management of the area of Phong Nha – Ke Bang (called Program Room Nha – Ke Bang) with two main project is to build the Phong Nha – Ke Bang and documenting the UNESCO National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang world natural Heritage; assigned to the Department of Science, Technology and Environment (now the Department of Science and Technology) in collaboration with the Department of Culture and Information organize conservation research programs and promote the values of Phong Nha – Ke Bang, and cooperation with the organization of national and international research, build scientific dossier submitted to UNESCO for consideration and recognized world natural heritage.
Department of Science, Technology and Environment of Quang Binh as a permanent body of the Programme Management Board of Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park was directly presided over the organization of scientific research with the enthusiastic participation of the research institutions at home and abroad, especially the Environmental Resource Center of Forestry – forest Inventory and planning Institute under the Ministry of Agriculture and rural Development and the Department of Geography – Geology – University of Science and Engineering However – Vietnam National University, International organizations such as Conservation Fund wildlife (WWF), the Association of nature Conservation (IUCN) … and build profile for Heritage called “Phong Nha Zone” on 41.132ha area and reported the Ministry of Culture and Information submitted to the UNESCO Paris May 06/1998.
May 5/1999, the People’s Committee of Quang Binh directing research organizations add value geology, geomorphology and announced officially proposed name recognition world natural heritage is “natural reserve , Phong Nha – Ke Bang “to contain all the natural values of protected areas; and actively carry out complete construction records the Phong Nha – Ke Bang. In addition this time is a very important issue in the process of filing is not mentioned much, it is the Earth’s history and geological value and geomorphology.
Some rare species in Phong Nha – Ke Bang
Dated 12.12.2001, the Prime Minister signed Decision No. 189/2001 / QD-TTg to establish the Phong Nha – Ke Bang re-classification on the basis of the nature reserve to protect decent integrity natural resources with diverse ecosystems and abundant forests, the rare plant and animal species at risk of extinction; exploiting the strength of the natural landscape for tourism development, livelihood for residents in the region, contributing to environmental protection and economic development – local society.
After 7 years since the province’s policy is initiated, on 05.07.2003, at the Annual Conference 27 th place in Paris (France), World Heritage Committee (WHC) of the Organization education, Science and Culture of the United Nations (UNESCO) has recognized the Phong Nha – Ke Bang world natural Heritage criteria “earth history and geological features worth floating global pop “.
10 years, after being recognized as a world natural heritage, Phong Nha – Ke Bang received growing attention of the international community. Many research programs, many investment projects in the country’s institutions and international have been implemented in the area of Phong Nha – Ke Bang to continue discovering the special international value, well global pop reviewed scientific viewpoint, aesthetic and conservation of Phong Nha – Ke Bang, organize activities to preserve the values of the region, especially the value of geology, geomorphology, aesthetic and biodiversity, support for local communities to collaborate on conservation programs, exploiting and promoting the unique value of the Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park in the direction of sustainable development .
Planning work has been focused on: the Phong Nha – Ke Bang has been approved by the Prime Minister under Decision No. 2335 / QD-TTg dated 08/12/2010. Provincial People’s Committee has approved the planning for sustainable tourism development in the region National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang period 2010 – 2020, with a vision to 2025 by Decision No. 2822 / QD-Committee dated 01/11 / 2010 strategic plan to manage the period 2013-2025 and operational management plan from 2013 to 2020 according to Decision No. 808 / QD-Committee and No. 809 / QD-Committee dated 09/4/2013.
Facilities in the last 10 years have been continuously strengthened, Quang Binh Province also won an appropriate part of the budget that would allow revenues from tourism activities Phong Nha – Ke Bang addition to investing activities research, conservation, exploitation and promotion of the values of the world’s natural heritage to serve economic development – local society.
Research on geology, geomorphology: For nearly 300 caves, there are many excellent caves and spectacular … Kast detection deepest sinkholes in Southeast Asia (with a depth of more than 255m) are aged over 400 million male. Especially the new discovery of the world’s largest caves – Son Doong Cave. It can be said detection Son Doong most important significance in researching caves in the national park 10 years. This discovery is a very important contribution adds outstanding value to the global history of the Earth’s crust and the geological features and the unique importance of Son Doong is active worldwide media reported.
Research on Biodiversity: Cooperation with scientists and professional bodies to conduct biodiversity surveys and published lists of existing plant 2,694 species of vascular plants, of which there are 79 species in the Red Data Book of Vietnam in 2007, 35 species in Decree 32/2006 / ND-CP of the Government; there are 396 species of invertebrate and 849 vertebrate species, including 82 species in Decree 32/2006 / ND-CP, 99 species in the Red Data Book of Vietnam in 2007 and 66 species in Books 2006 IUCN red … Especially, have discovered 19 new species for science, rediscovered Laotian rock rat (Laonastes aenigmamus) is said to be extinct for 11 million years. This discovery has added to the list of up to 323 Vietnam Animal species.
The findings above are the positive contributions of scientists from Germany, Russia and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, attracted the special attention of biologists of Vietnam and the world. The study results are an important scientific basis for directing the operation and implementation of conservation programs and promote global outstanding value in terms of scientific opinion, conservation or aesthetic of Heritage National Park UNESCO world Phong Nha – Ke Bang.
With the results of research on biodiversity, we are complete dossier for submission to UNESCO Phong Nha – Ke Bang World Natural Heritage criteria in terms of biodiversity conservation aspects (Text 4th Release).
Along with preserving the world’s natural heritage, Quang Binh province has promoted Heritage better serve economic development – social.
Particularly in the field of tourism, the number of international and domestic visitors to visit the Phong Nha – Ke Bang growing, the average annual increase of 24%. Particularly in 2012, up 255 731 Paradise tourist attraction, including 4,275 international visitors; Tourist Centre Phong Nha – Ke Bang has welcomed 260,410 tourists, including 10,626 foreigners.
Achieving the achievements mentioned above, first of all the care and help of the government, the ministries and central agencies, Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, the Forest Protection Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Geography – Geology of the University of Natural Sciences – Vietnam National University, College of Forestry, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources – Institute of Science and technology of Vietnam, the expedition of the Association explorers Cave British Crown, and international organizations on nature conservation and protection of wild animals such as: organization Culture, Science and Education of the United Nations (UNESCO), the Association for conservation of nature (IUCN ), world Wide Fund for nature (WWF), the international Organization of German cooperation (GIZ), the German Reconstruction Bank (KFW), Organisation for animal and plant Conservation international (FFI), the animals Fankfurt – Germany (FZS), Germany Colonge Zoo (CZ), other international organizations and scientists at home and abroad …
However, with the strategic vision and long-term plans, it wants to Phong Nha – Ke Bang preserve the outstanding universal value of a global world natural heritage, organization management and exploitation potential this unprecedented performance on the principle of sustainable development is still very much to do that the first, with a decisive role is to promote scientific research activities in Phong Nha – Ke Bang. By the way, I would like to confirm that, with the area-based 125.000ha giant limestone blocks ancient, majestic, Phong Nha – Ke Bang is the treasure of scientists.
We remember in the early years of this decade, starting when approached with the concept “World Natural Heritage” to organize the study of the global value of the Phong Nha – Ke Bang, made submissions UNESCO world natural Heritage has faced many difficulties due to insufficient awareness of criteria and conditions for recognition as a world Heritage Site. The results of our study do not have the depth, not cover all the inherent value of the Phong Nha – Ke Bang, and even had the thought has not really accurate. Right from the first filed in 1999, the IUCN delegation of UNESCO was authorized by field evaluation of criteria to consider global values frankly pointed out the shortcomings and lack of them It is in the work of scientific research. Two leading experts on the issue of IUCN’s Dr. Elery Hamilton Smith and Hans Fridrich pointed out that many scientists go towards getting the younger Karst region this is wrong, that we are “incomplete studies on Phong Nha area … has not brought about the by credentials, obviously … “, that” the investigation to map the entire area estimates, so far only done a fraction …. “on the other hand, also in the evaluation report IUCN’s delegation, heritage experts say the world has the Phong Nha – Ke Bang of us “have potential value for criteria 1 (earth history and geological features) and criterion 4 (biodiversity). “However, at that time, with the help of effective international scientific organizations and domestic, we have demonstrated the global value earth’s history and geological features important but not proven global value aesthetically, cave landscape and biological diversity.
July 2003, UNESCO has recognized the Phong Nha – Ke Bang World Natural Heritage with the full criteria 1 (Earth history and geological features), but the comments of the experts Elery Hamilton Smith, Hans Fridrich and evaluation of the appraisal of the IUCN delegation of our weaknesses in the study remain valid. Since the Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park was recognized as the World Natural Heritage far, we have scientific research institutions to continue to discover new values of the Phong Nha – Ke Bang, but almost research activities take place passively and not enough to fill the gaps in knowledge that organizations and international experts have pointed out to us.
Therefore, in a lot of work to do to preserve and promote the special international value, global highlights of World Heritage National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang, scientific research should focus on some following contents:
First, enlist the help of the Ministry of Science and Technology, ministries and central agencies, scientists at home and abroad to promote the study of Phong Nha – Ke Bang.
Second, continue studying additional or more information about the International special value in terms of the scientific aspects of the Earth’s history and characteristics, structural geology, stratigraphy, tectonics, active magmatism, topography, geomorphology, paleontology and other geological processes … (1st criterion).
Thirdly, Research Heritage dossier completion according biodiversity criteria in terms of the science or conservation (4th criterion) and additional studies after completing their dossiers Heritage.
Fourth, should expand the scope and object of study area of Phong Nha – Ke Bang in order to synthesize and identify prominent global value of super-natural phenomena and habitats, natural wonders natural beauty, unique unusual aspect in terms of aesthetics (3rd criterion).
This is initialized initial criteria when we submitted to UNESCO, but has not been accepted. It has not been accepted under the 3rd criteria does not mean Phong Nha – Ke Bang is not worthy of that we do not have sufficient scientific records to prove at that time.
Arguably, the world has known Phong Nha – Ke Bang not only highlights the global value of the “History of the Earth and geological features” and “Biodiversity” but also as “The current super natural phenomenon and habitats, natural wonders, natural beauty, unique unusual aspect in terms of aesthetics. ”
Aesthetic value of natural beauty, unique unusual not just stop at a certain individual, but the whole population of ancient limestone blocks, giant, majestic, the most extensive in Vietnam, correlation contiguous to Laos, then this is the largest limestone massif planet (Pierre G., 1966), including spectacular caves, magnificent, widest, highest, longest, more individual cave most, including dry caves have been retired and active wet cave; including a number of natural phenomena such as sinkholes Kast super deepest Southeast Asia (with a depth of more than 255m) and the habitat, stunning natural wonders, the majestic, unique, unusual in forests native vegetation on limestone system with age old Devon – Carbon – Permian (419.2 to 358.9 – 298.9 to 252.17 million in accordance with international stratigraphic scale 1/2013 month) thick on 1,000m in tropical climate conditions … isolated monsoon varied according to the different tectonic cycles in earth’s history.
Fifth, the Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park is the province contains historical values, cultural importance, including matters anthropological, ethnic culture, archeology, especially the President relics associated with the Ho Chi Minh trail popular myth, also needs to be investigated to clarify the values that promote aid in the conservation of values.
Friday, must focus on the overall, synchronized system solutions for conservation, exploitation and promotion of the values of the World Heritage National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park in relation to the international community and integration.
Nature has endowed Quang Binh a precious resource is the Phong Nha – Ke Bang, scientific research activities will contribute significantly to the conservation, exploitation and promotion of the values effectively Korea particularly health, highlights the value of global and endemic, unique and special rare world Heritage National Park Phong Nha – Ke Bang.
TS. Nguyen Huu Hoai
Deputy Secretary of the Provincial Party Committee – Chairman of Quang Binh